world                                               Cyprus

German Version: klick hier Fahne en

Partition of Cyprus and the origin of the Cyprus Conflict.
Cyprus is devided not since the Turkish intervention of 1974 but since the Greek subjugation of part of the island in 1964, and the current Cyprus conflict began in the 1950ies when the English surrender of the island became imminent.

A Subpage to the Page: Cyprus Conflict * 2017 07 02

It has become costumary for all kinds of publications to date the partition of Cyprus and even the origin of the Cyprus conflict with the Turkish intervention in the island in 1974. This half-truth constitutes an obstacle to a lasting conclusion of the conflict because it dusguises its fundamental objective. The Cyprus conflict consists in the claim of the Greek side for sole sovereingty over the island and the Turkish demand of partition or at least self-determination of the Turkish minority of (around 1960) approximately 20 % of the poüulation of the island (at that time, since centuries, the communitites dwelled side by side spread out over the whole island). This conflict originated basically in the 19th century in the course of the rise of nationalism in Europe and the development of a "Megali Idea" of conquering "Constantinople" (now Istanbul) for Greece, that made Turkey a "hereditary enemy" of Greece. It comprised, of course, the inclusion of Cyprus into an "Hellenic" empire. As far as Cyprus was concernded, the conflict remained contained as long as the island belonged, from 1571 until 1878, to the Ottoman Empire and was subject, since 1878, to English colonial rule. It became virulent as a collateral effect of the revolt of the Greeks of Cyprus against England that started out with demonstrations from 1950 and developed into bloody terrorism from 1955 onwards. Negotiations for a solution of the conflict started in the 1950ies as part of preparations for a project of founding a Republic of Cyprus. The conflict resulted in that project materializing only under the condition of an agreement between the conflicting parties on a constitution that would guarantee Turkish participation in government. The Greek accepted this agreement for the sake of appearance only. This enabled the achievement of independence from England, narrowing the focus of the conflict to the Greek-and-Turkish relationship. As early as in 1963/1964 the Greeks of the island proceeded to attempt the subjugatiobn of Turkish Cypriots by force of arms. The Greeks abandoned the basic conditions of the constitution of 1960 and founded their own State rid of Turkish co-determination. Subjugation did not however succeed as the Turkish Cypriots were able to resist it by concentrating in exlaves. As a result, the island was divided politically and also in terms of territory in 1964.

This result implied the achievement of the Greek goal of sole sovereignty in Cyprus, albeit restricted to territories outside the Turkish exclaves. Then, in 1974, a second and this time all-Greek attempt at subjugating the Turkish Cypriots by military force led to Turkish military action which was accompanied by all Turkish Cypriots living in the south of the island taking refuge in the North and all Greek Cypriots living in the north fleeing to the South of the island. In the southern part the Greek Cypriot State continued to consolidate and a Turkish Cypriot State developed in the north of the island. Since as early as the 1960ies, the two communities and later states negotiate, under international pressure about a termination of the conflict through unification. The conflict continues to exist in the irreconcileable demands for sole Greek sovereignty and Turkish self-determination within a common state.

Unless one of the two claims is given up or reduced, no amount of pressure can produce anything but a repetition of the fake solution of 1960 that would sooner or later lead to more rounds of bloodshed. This is because the creation of a genuine and functional federation as envisaged in the negotiations would require honest recognition by the Greek Cypriots of a politically equal Turkish State in the north of Cyprus. Even a promise of such a recognition could not however provide at this stage a solid ground for federation, as it is incompatible with the firmly established and rigidly executed Greek policy of attaining superiority over the Turks of Cyprus. This policy has continually and very effectively worked towards the isolation and deprivation of the latter, with the Greek party grasping every opportunity of harming the even vital interests of the Turks of Cyprus and was even increased ever since 1963. Therefore, the only alternative that would provide a chance for permanent peace around Cyprus is offered by an international recognition of two states in the island. Only true and effective political equality of the two Cypriot Communities bears a chance of convincing the Greek side of the futility of their previous attitude and could pave the ground for sincere rapprochement and probably even the emergence of a Cyprus Federation at some point in the future.

(Rerad more: Cyprus Conflict.)
Verzeichnis aller pages von Christian Heinze * * * Impressum